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Wednesday, July 21, 2010

Affirmative & Negative Agreement


Affirmative Agreement

When indicating that one person or thing does something and then adding that another does the same, use the word “so” or “too”. To avoid needless repetition of words from the affirmative statement, use the conjunction “and”, followed by a simple statement using so or too. The order of this statement will depend on whether so or too is used.

• When a form of the verb be is used in the main clause, the same tense of verb be is used in the simple statement that follows.

Affirmative statement (be) + and + [ S + verb (be) + too]
Example: I am happy and you are too.

Affirmative statement (be) + and + [ so + verb (be) + S ]
Example: I am happy and so are you.

• When a compound verb (auxiliary +verb), for example, will go, should do, has done, have written, must examine, etc., occurs in the main clause, the auxiliary of the main verb is used in the simple statement, and the subject and verb must agree.

Affirmative statement (compound verb) + and + [ S + auxiliary only + too ]
Example: Edward should do his homework and Bella should too.

Affirmative statement (compound verb) + and + [ so + auxiliary only + S ]
Example: Edward should do his homework and so does Bella.

• When any verb except be appears without any auxiliaries in the main clause, the auxiliary do, does, or did is used in the simple statement. The subject and verb must agree and the tense must be the same.

Affirmative statement (single verb except be) + and + [ S + do, does ,or did + too ]
Example: Tae Yeon plays guitar every day and Jessica does too.

Affirmative statement (single verb except be) + and + [ so + do, does, or did + S ]
Example: Yuri sung “Gee” and so did Yoona.

Additional Examples:
1. Rose likes to fly, and her brother does too.
2. They will leave at noon, and I will too.
3. He has an early appointment, and so do I.
4. She has already written her composition, and so have her friends.
5. Their plane is arriving at nine o’clock, and so is mine.
6. I should go grocery shopping this afternoon, and so should my neighbor.
7. We like to swim in the pool, and they do too.
8. Our Spanish teacher loves to travel, and so do we.
9. He has lived in Mexico for five years, and you have too.
10. I must write them a letter, and she must too.

Negative Agreement

“Either” and “neither” function in simple statements much like “so” and “too” in affirmative sentences. However, either and neither are used to indicate negative agreement. The same rules for auxiliaries, be and do, does, or did apply.

Negative statement + and + [ S + negative auxiliary or be + either]
Negative statement + and + [ neither + positive auxiliary or be + S ]

Examples:
I didn’t see Bella this morning. Edward didn’t see Bella this morning
I didn’t see Bella this morning and Edward didn’t either.
I didn’t see Bella this morning and neither did Edward.

Additional examples:
1. The children shouldn’t take that medicine, and neither should she.
2. We don’t plan to attend the concert, and neither do they.
3. I don’t like tennis, and he doesn’t either.
4. She didn’t see anyone she knew, and neither did Tim.
5. The Yankees couldn’t play due to the bad weather, and neither could the Angels.
6. Mary can’t type well, and her sister can’t either.
7. I’m not interested in reading that book, and neither is she.
8. They won’t have to work on weekends, and we won’t either.
9. I can’t stand listening to that music, and she can’t either.
10. Michael doesn’t speak English, and his family doesn’t either.
11. That scientist isn’t too happy with the project, and neither are her supervisors.
12. We can’t study in the library, and they can’t either.
13. I haven’t worked there long, and neither have you.
14. You didn’t pay the rent, and she didn’t either.
15. They didn’t want anything to drink, and neither did we.
16. John shouldn’t run so fast, and neither should you.
17. The students won’t accept the dean’s decision, and the faculty won’t either.
18. Your class hasn’t begun yet, and neither has mine.
19. She couldn’t attend the lecture, and her sister couldn’t either.
20. He didn’t know the answer, and neither did I.

Reference: Cliffs, Test of English as a Foreign Language Preparation Guide.1991.

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